Questions and answers about HMK

Here you can read frequently asked questions and answers about HMK. The questions are grouped by subject area.

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General questions about HMK

No, HMK is not a regulation. The guidelines in HMK are only binding if the contracting parties or principals choose to apply them, e.g. in procurement or in own regulations.

The manuals are intended as a support for professional geodata collection, geodetic measurement and map production. The advice directed at customers is based on experiences and requirements that the National Land Survey, the municipalities and the Swedish Transport Administration have within their respective areas of activity.

Requirements in HMK are referenceable guidelines in the HMK manuals with the heading "Requirements". Use of requirements presupposes that there is an agreement between a customer / setter of requirements and a contractor where reference is made to the specific requirements in HMK.

As a customer, there is always the opportunity to deviate from or supplement the requirements contained in HMK. The requirements are reported in light red boxes at the beginning of numbered sections in manuals from version 2020.

HMK does not contain any guidelines for assessing authorizations in connection with regulations or the like. On the other hand, Lantmäteriet, in consultation with universities and other stakeholders, has formulated a recommendation on Basic Surveying Technical Skills.

This should primarily be used as a benchmark for merits that can be seen as reasonable for independent work/responsibility. Basic metrological skills thus do not replace a formal eligibility assessment, but can be included in it.

See also section 3.1 in HMK - Introduction 2017 (in Swedish, pdf, new window).

Several of the HMK manuals contain guidelines for the design and use of a technical specification, ie. an interface between customer and contractor where the production requirements are gathered. These manuals also contain templates and examples based on the guidelines.

The reference document HMK - Introduction 2017 (in Swedish, pdf, new window) addresses formal aspects of procurement, for example law.

HMK documents are updated as needed. The latest manual versions are reviewed at least once a year. In connection with the review, minor updates can be made, which is reported in the HMK log (in Swedish, pdf, new window). Comments from users can normally be handled in the same way.

Major updates that cause new versions are planned and anchored in the HMK Reference Group, which includes a consultation process. Please note that older versions of the manuals are also available for download. The reason for this is that the manuals can be included as a basis - and therefore be "valid" - in an ongoing procurement, even if new manual versions have been published since then.

The need for new handbooks is often mapped with the help of HMK's reference group, which is an important forum for industry dialogue and input to HMK. In addition to this, we try to capture views and wishes at conferences, seminars and information meetings.

Received proposals are prioritized based on needs/benefits and resources. When a new handbook project is initiated, it normally takes place in a working group, where stakeholders contribute with subject competence.

There are both pedagogical and linguistic reasons to prefer the concept of "measurement uncertainty". First, it is more in line with the measurement science principle that all measurements should be considered more or less uncertain, e.g. the coordinate determinations that take place in connection with geodata collection.

There is nothing flawless to compare with, as the term "accuracy" may suggest. Secondly, there is a linguistic logic in that the quality measure becomes greater when we say that measurement uncertainty increases. For "accuracy", the opposite is true.

Read more: GUM, to express measurement uncertainty.

All previous versions of the manuals are available via the HMK website: Older versions of HMK documents.

These should still be considered valid according to the current procurement documentation, even if they contain a different set of requirements and recommendations than later versions. It is therefore important that all references to HMK manuals contain the full document name, including version designation (ie year designation).

Note that some minor updates (links, spelling errors, etc.) are performed in existing manual versions if they are not of decisive importance for requirements. Such updates are reported in the HMK log (in Swedish, pdf, new window).

Originally, HMK was an abbreviation for " Handbook for the measurement announcement" which replaced TFA, "Technical explanations and instructions for the measurement announcement".

When work on HMK was resumed in 2011, the name was changed to "Handbook of measurement and map issues" as the survey announcement was abolished in 2010.

Nowadays, HMK is made with the support of, among other things, the following sections in Ordinance (2009: 946) with instructions forLantmäteriet:

  • Lantmäterietshall work for uniformity, coordination and quality within the measurement area and within the map technical area (Section 5 p6)
  • Lantmäterietshall within the framework of its area of ​​activity also otherwise provide advice and support (Section 6 p6)

More information about the background and why HMK is needed can be found in Chapter 1 of HMK-Introduction 2017 (in Swedish, pdf, new window).

Questions about specific manuals or technology areas

In geodetic measurement, we have judged that it is more difficult to set requirements for a streamlined production process, partly because many measurement and calculation methods can be selected and combined to solve different tasks.

On the other hand, the concept "basic design" is found in the geodesy manuals, which is assumed to correspond to professional design. This can be used for setting requirements.

As with all other measurements, the positions via GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, eg GPS) can be more or less uncertain, e.g. due to the satellite signals being affected by various sources of error along the path to the receiver. The fact that the "starting points" are 2000 km away and in motion also makes it difficult to assess how reliable your actual position is.

With good measurement methodology and ground-based support systems / services, e.g. SWEPOS in Sweden, reduces the risk of major errors in position. GNSS can then enable position determination at the centimeter level directly in national or global reference systems.

Read more about measurement methodology:

HMK - GNSS-based detailed measurement 2020 (in Swedishpdf, new window).HMK - Frame survey 2020 (in Swedish, pdf, new window).

Read more about SWEPOS, the national network of fixed reference stations for GNSS (new window).

Questions about digital base map

Yes, delivery format is up to the municipality to choose for the time being. In the long run, any recommendations or regulations may come into question in the format issue.

Regardless of the delivery format, we recommend that the design of the digital base map in the delivery follows future information architecture frameworks and national specifications for geodata developed in the project Smarter Community Building, see recommendation 2.4 d ) in the HMK-Digital base map.

The property list does not refer to "property list for the base map", but "property list for detailed plan work". Property list and base map according to PBL are two different bases for detailed plan work. They do not have to have a completely identical coverage area.

The property list always includes at least the base map area, but can also refer to a larger area to handle the contact area for the detailed plan.

No, the recommendation is that everything should be 100% correct, but the level of ambition of the work is determined jointly between the contractor and the client.

It is unnecessary to measure all buildings with 100% accuracy if the purpose of the plan is that e.g. only take over the roads in a residential area or allow for densification of housing in a part of an area.

It is the purpose of the plan that determines how much and how accurately objects should be measured and checked in an area. In an area with leasehold plots e.g. both plantings and hedges can be important objects for the planning officer to be able to investigate whether it is possible to form properties based on leases.

  • Rights granted in the event of separation
  • Contract rights granted in connection with the transaction
  • Agreement on wiring
  • Possession-protected leases

It is appropriate to save and reuse geometries for contractual rights for future work with property investigations.

Note, however, that the locally saved information should only be seen as a basis for future property investigations that need to be checked and updated. This is because the information may contain shortcomings in the form that contractual rights may have been written off or added.

How information is handled in detail is up to the municipality, as different municipalities have different routines and systems.

HMK-Digital base map does not constitute a constitution but only a handbook with recommendations. Neither Lantmäteriet nor the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning have issued any regulations on standards for the design of basic maps.

It is the municipality itself, as the person responsible for personal data for processing, must make the legal the assessments necessary under the GDPR, including assessment of legal (legal) basis under Article 6 (1) GDPR. Lantmäteriet can not make these assessments for the municipality.

Other areas

HMK - Building and construction, HMK-BA, is not included in today's HMK. HMK-BA was developed in the 1990s as an industry-specific complement to older HMK (Handbook for the measurement announcement).

Today, HMK-BA is owned by the research council Formas. However, the series has not been revised, but is still published in its original form.

A more detailed status description of HMK-BA can be found in the report HMK-TR 2018: 2 (in Swedish, pdf, new window).

Drones are not available as a separate manual theme/collection method. On the other hand, drones are mentioned in other manuals under the name UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems), e.g. in HMK - Aerial Photography 2017 (in Swedish, pdf, new window) and in HMK - Photogrammetric detail measurement 2017 (in Swedish, pdf, new window).

HMK - Aerial Photography 2017 (in Swedish, pdf, new window) processes oriented aerial images in plumb; how these are produced, controlled and documented. The starting point is airborne collection of images in plumb with a GNSS/INS-supported digital aerial image camera, but aerial images in plumb with UAS are also handled.

In-depth answers

More detailed answers to the questions:

Should not the "property list to base map" include the same area for both property list and base map?

The base map area refers to the area where data on topography and property conditions are checked and updated to b li a basic map for detailed planning work. In other words, the base map is only within the base map area. Any map data outside the base map area refers to so-called map extracts where data has not been checked for base map, see figure 3.2 in HMK - Digital base map.

The handbook describes "property investigation for digital base map" in section 3.6.1 and such is not done outside the base map area. even if the property list covers a larger area.

The work with the property investigation for the property list is not described in the handbook. On the other hand, what is stated in the handbook, according to 3.6 d), is that within the base map area, the base map and the property list should always report the same property conditions regarding occurrence and identity.

To ensure this, the two documents must be coordinated within the base map area. How this coordination is done is up to the municipality because different municipalities have different routines for producing the two different documents for detailed planning work.

Without coordination, there is a risk that the documents show different information about the property conditions within the base map area and that duplication work is performed.

Can you give examples of known unregistered contractual rights?

Rights granted by separation

Easement granted by a separation is not an official right. It is a contractual right. This is despite the fact that it can often be reported on the separation map in the file in the administrative archive. Often it has not been requested to be registered. This means that it is not reported in the property register (FR), neither in the general part, nor in the registration part.

Despite this, one can often, e.g. when it is reported on the map in the file and refers to something physically permanent and obviously observable in the terrain, such as an exit road, assume that its presence is discovered during the property investigation that is done.

This also means that in such a cases, despite the lack of the substantive protection that a registration provides, can be assumed to remain valid against new owners of encumbered property, even though it may have changed owners several times.

A concrete example can be seen in the files 03 -AVS-2417 p. 1 and 5 and 03-88: 413 p. 5-6.

The easements that were added during separations before 1876 even have the same substantive protection as if they were registered. One reason for this is that it was not until 1876 that there was any possibility of protecting one's easement by enrollment. A tip is therefore to pay special attention if there are properties in the area that were formed by secession before 1876.

Contract rights granted in connection with service

Contract rights may have been granted in connection with, ( but not within), ordinance and be included in the ordinance even after the era of seclusion. The lease has often been made with the participation of the administrative surveyor and is therefore included as an appendix in the administrative act.

It may even be the case that the existence of, or even the area of exercise for, the right is reported on the administrative map. The reason why the lease was made as a contractual right, and not one as an official right, is often that there was a legal obstacle to making it as the latter.

For some reason, it is often the case that the rights have not been registered. What has been stated above under 1) on the discovery of the right in a property investigation as well as a property law portfolio should therefore apply to the highest degree to these as well. A concrete example can be found in file 04-YTT-429 p. 1 and 12.

Agreement on pipelines

Permission to place pipelines in or under a public place, public road or railway has often done through special agreements, instead of by leasing e.g. management right. The legal figure that has arisen through the agreement should, in this context, almost be regarded as an unregistered contractual right. of the lines arouse (mis) thoughts in the base map performer about the existence of such an agreement as a basis for the placement. Copies of these agreements can also be included as appendices in administrative documents regarding management rights or the like.

As a kind of explanation for why interruptions have been made in a management rights section. An experienced and trained eye can anticipate the existence of such agreements by studying management rights on the register map.

Possessed leases

Possessed leases have rarely been entered in FR's registration part, and are of course not official rights. Nevertheless, the existence of such is often generally known and of great importance for planning of a certain type.

An example is the housing lease for a collection of holiday homes on so-called unfree grounds. When planning such an area, which may be the result of a desire to subdivide and sell plots of land to resp. house / homeowner, the existence of the leases is of course known to the municipality or the initiator of the planning.

It is also important that the agreements are presented and examined in the planning work so that the rights can be considered and managed according to the best conditions. . This also applies to the description of consequences that must take place in accordance with the law.

Another example is the existence of an agricultural lease on a land area that has been purchased as a raw land area for planning. Agricultural areas are often leased. For a field or pasture area that is used when planning begins, it should be assumed as a basic hypothesis that there is a lease.

For planning of land areas owned by the municipality or another initiator of the planning, such as a developer, is Of course, the presence of leases on the land known. If the raw land acquisition has been carried out through a property regulation, the existence of the lease, or even of the lease agreement itself, can be presented in that deed of administration. Often because they have been the subject of a decision to continue to exist in the procedure. This means that you can assume that they will continue to be valid during their period of validity, even though such changes have taken place.

How should we as a municipality handle geometries for contractual rights? according to section 3.6.2 to simplify future property investigations for the base map and property list?

Here you can find an example of how Eskilstuna municipality, which is not a KLM municipality, handles contractual rights. The example is written by Eskilstuna municipality.

We have created three different GIS layers, one for point, one for line and one for surfaces, for contract rights in our GIS database. 

When we make an investigation for a base map, we go through what information is available about the current properties in the property register, then we check about some of the current the contractual rights already exist in our folders and / or digitized as geoobjects. If we do not have the files, we order them, save the file in a folder with the same name as the agreement has in the general part of the property register and then we digitize the objects and store them in the GIS database. 

In the same way, we check if there are objects digitized in the area before, but are not in the property register, then we have to handle these in an appropriate way. Lantmäteriet 's internal PM layer.

We further developed the work at Eskilstuna municipality. First, we copied the layer with contractual rights from Lantmäteriet 's internal PM layer to the municipality's GIS database. Then we added some columns for more attributes. Our database is separate from Lantmäteriet 's database, but we have edit tracking so that colleagues at Lantmäteriet , if they wish, can take part in all edits from a certain date.

Can there be any legal problems for a municipality to build up a GIS layer with areas for contractual easements, it's about civil law agreements between private individuals, GDPR or other legislation?

Lantmäteriet 's lawyer believes that the writing in HMK is not primarily aimed at collecting agreements concerning unregistered contractual easements from the contracting parties.

Article 6.1 (a) GDPR. It constitutes a legal basis for the processing if the data subject has given his consent to his personal data being processed for the purpose in question. Consent must be voluntary.
NOTE! Note, however, that consent according to the GDPR can be revoked at any time.

If it is only a question of unregistered contractual easements already known by the municipality, the information is already with the municipality. The municipality can then process this already collected personal data as long as it is not incompatible with the original purposes for which the personal data was once collected.

The legal basis can then be "information of public interest" according to Article 6.1 e) GDPR in combination with the municipality as an integrity-enhancing measure should also "obtain the consent of the parties to the agreement".

Regulation regarding the collection of unregistered contractual easements can be found in the following statutes

Planning and Building Act

  • Chapter 5. § 8
  • Authorizations ch. 16 § 1 a

Planning and Building Ordinance

Planning documents

  • Chapter 2 Section 5 a, Ordinance (2019: 207), Chapter 2 Section 5 b, Ordinance (2019: 207), Chapter 2 Section 6, Ordinance (2018: 1872)


  • Chapter 10 Section 29, Ordinance (2019: 207)
  • Chapter 10 § 30, Ordinance (2019: 207)

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