The horizontal and vertical positions for these points and gravity values are determined by accurate surveys. The triangulation stations, benchmarks and gravity stations are marked on the ground and are observed as networks.
Modern mapping, the creation of geographic databases, requires a geodetic infrastructure in the form of reference systems and geodetic networks.
Lantmäteriet is responsible for the national infrastructure by establishing and maintaining the geodetic networks as well as the national reference systems: SWEREF 99 in three dimensions and on the plane, RH 2000 in height and RG 82 for gravity. To secure height measurements using GNSS, we are also responsible for the geoid model SWEN17_RH2000.
Here you find a number of interactive services connected to the subject field of geodesy. You can e.g. transform co-ordinates or compute geoid heights.